Mango crop suffers a colossal
loss due to multiple factors every year. It is
generally felt that the productivity of the mango
in its growing region of the world is rather low.
It may attribute to irregular bearing, non-availability
of high yielding varieties, poor orchard management
practice such as inefficient management of insect
pests and diseases, physiological disorders including
spongy tissues in Alphanso cultivar, softening
near the stone, poor nutrient and water management,
improper pre and post harvest management, short
storage life of mango and lack of quarantine facilities.
Therefore, development of viable strategies is
of paramount importance to compete in national
and international markets. There are tremendous
possibilities to boost the productivity and in
turn, the production of mango, if problems encountered
in mango cultivation can be solved and the solution
passed on effectively to the mango growers
Establishment of mango orchard is a long term
investment and trees continues to produce fruit
for longer period than many other fruit crops.
Thus, its planting requires proper planning which
includes careful selection of site, provision
of gentle slope to facilitate proper irrigation
and proper drainage to avoid harmful effect of
water logging during rainy season. Similarly,
proper maintenance and care is required for profitable
orcharding through high production of quality
Special attention is required in selection of
site, field preparation in the selection, actual
layout of the orchard, proper spacing, digging
of pits, selection of correct planting material,
planting and caring of young plants and inter-culture
operations. In field condition, appearance of
nutrient deficiency symptoms is a complex phenomenon
that changes with age, placement of shoot, time
of emergence, season, sampling height, sampling
direction, root stock, reproductive stage of the
shoot, type of soil and fertilizer management.
Considerable skill and experience is required
to identify a deficiency correctly. Whenever deficiency
symptoms appear, long range remedial measures
should be taken to avoid their recurrence. It
is strongly advised to have the soil and plant
samples analyzed and to seek expert opinion about
the nutrient status of both and its implication
in sustainable fruit production.
suffers from numerous diseases and insect
pests. Their efficient control is vital
for optimum production; otherwise the
productivity might drop drastically. Due
to environmental concerns, development
of resistance, health hazards etc. Of
chemical fungicides and insecticides,
there is a growing awakening for minimizing
the use or if possible, to do away their
use altogether. It is therefore high time
to follow integrated insect pest management,
integrated disease management which involves
use of plant products, parasites and predators
and must microorganisms.
Therefore, to enhance the mango productivity
through efficient orchard management,
nutrient management, integrated disease
and pest management, the mango polyclinic
came into existence.
DISTRIBUTION OF MANGO
Presently, beside India, it is
being cultivated in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma,
Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Indonesia, the Fiji Island, Tropical
Australia, Egypt, Israel, Sudan, Somalia, Kenya,
Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa, Niger, Nigeria,
Zaire, Madagascar, Mauritius, the USA (Florida,
Hawaii, Puerto Rico), Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil,
Australia, West Indies Islands & Cambodia.
The Palestine introduced the mango
culture at the beginning of the present century.
The plant introduced before the First World
war failed to establish. Again in 1929, the
plants were imported from Egypt and this started
bearing in 1933. Later many varieties of mango
were introduced there from Egypt, Java, South
Africa and Florida, which are growing successfully.
Yemen introduced mango in the late
eighteenth century. Egypt imported grafted saplings
in 1925 from India which established successfully.
The mango was introduced into southern Italy
in 1905 and Lisbon in the middle of the eighteen
The French islands of Reunion is
the original home of several varieties, now
cultivated in the West Indies and Florida. The
mango was introduced to Somali land in 1331
AD and Reunion and Madagascar about the middle
of eighteenth century. The fruit was introduced
in Canary islands in the nineteenth century
and the Azores in 1865 AD.
In the Mediterranean region, the
species are not entirely successful. Trees are
reported to have produced fruits in several
localities. In Madeira and Canary Island, it
was grown successfully.
HISTORY OF MANGO
The history of the introduction
of the mango into West Indies is the interesting.
The mango was first introduced to Barbodos in
1742. According to Candolle, ''A French vessel
was carrying some young trees from Bourbon to
Saint Domingo in 1782, when it was introduced
in Jamaica where they were established. When
the coffee plantations were abandoned at the
time of the emancipation of the slaves, the
mango whose stones were scattered by Negroes
everywhere, which formed forest in every part
of the islands, and these are now valued both
for their shade and as a form of food. Mango
thrives very well in Jamaica. Later, two grafted
varieties (Bombai) were imported by John Peter
Grant from India in 1869, 22 varieties were
introduced. Grafted plants of 11 varieties of
mango were introduced from Botanical Garden
at Martingue. Since then mango is well established
in Jamaica. Seedling mangoes according to Candolle
are better fruit than the grafted varieties
in Cayenne (French Guiana). The grafted varieties
were introduced at the end of the eighteenth
century but now they have the finest mangoes.
Famous Urdu Poet Mirza Ghalib praised
mango as sealed jars of paradisal honey. It
is very interesting to note that an ode to mango
appearing in an anthology written and published
in Calcutta between 1793 and 1797 by one J-H
and dedicated to the officers of the Indian
Army on the Bengal establishment under the East
India Company. A stanza is quoted.
The luscious fruit admired
Which ripens in the rosy East,
By elegance of most ador'd
Of all the viands on the board.
Late Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira
Gandhi, served mangoes to Mr.Leonoid Brezhnev,
then President of Moscow in 1976. Late Mrs.
Gandhi's favourite fruit was mango and she used
to like Indian Samar Bahist variety the most.
She presented a basket of Alphonso mangoes to
President Tito during her visit to Yugoslavia
Mao Tse-tung, Chairman of China was fond of
mangoes. Mango is considered a 'Spiritual Atom
Bomb' by the followers of Mao.
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