Production    

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PRODUCTION SCENARIO

Mango crop suffers a colossal loss due to multiple factors every year. It is generally felt that the productivity of the mango in its growing region of the world is rather low. It may attribute to irregular bearing, non-availability of high yielding varieties, poor orchard management practice such as inefficient management of insect pests and diseases, physiological disorders including spongy tissues in Alphanso cultivar, softening near the stone, poor nutrient and water management, improper pre and post harvest management, short storage life of mango and lack of quarantine facilities.
Therefore, development of viable strategies is of paramount importance to compete in national and international markets. There are tremendous possibilities to boost the productivity and in turn, the production of mango, if problems encountered in mango cultivation can be solved and the solution passed on effectively to the mango growers

Establishment of mango orchard is a long term investment and trees continues to produce fruit for longer period than many other fruit crops. Thus, its planting requires proper planning which includes careful selection of site, provision of gentle slope to facilitate proper irrigation and proper drainage to avoid harmful effect of water logging during rainy season. Similarly, proper maintenance and care is required for profitable orcharding through high production of quality fruits

Special attention is required in selection of site, field preparation in the selection, actual layout of the orchard, proper spacing, digging of pits, selection of correct planting material, planting and caring of young plants and inter-culture operations. In field condition, appearance of nutrient deficiency symptoms is a complex phenomenon that changes with age, placement of shoot, time of emergence, season, sampling height, sampling direction, root stock, reproductive stage of the shoot, type of soil and fertilizer management. Considerable skill and experience is required to identify a deficiency correctly. Whenever deficiency symptoms appear, long range remedial measures should be taken to avoid their recurrence. It is strongly advised to have the soil and plant samples analyzed and to seek expert opinion about the nutrient status of both and its implication in sustainable fruit production.

Mango suffers from numerous diseases and insect pests. Their efficient control is vital for optimum production; otherwise the productivity might drop drastically. Due to environmental concerns, development of resistance, health hazards etc. Of chemical fungicides and insecticides, there is a growing awakening for minimizing the use or if possible, to do away their use altogether. It is therefore high time to follow integrated insect pest management, integrated disease management which involves use of plant products, parasites and predators and must microorganisms.
Therefore, to enhance the mango productivity through efficient orchard management, nutrient management, integrated disease and pest management, the mango polyclinic came into existence.

DISTRIBUTION OF MANGO

Presently, beside India, it is being cultivated in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, the Fiji Island, Tropical Australia, Egypt, Israel, Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa, Niger, Nigeria, Zaire, Madagascar, Mauritius, the USA (Florida, Hawaii, Puerto Rico), Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, West Indies Islands & Cambodia.

The Palestine introduced the mango culture at the beginning of the present century. The plant introduced before the First World war failed to establish. Again in 1929, the plants were imported from Egypt and this started bearing in 1933. Later many varieties of mango were introduced there from Egypt, Java, South Africa and Florida, which are growing successfully.

Yemen introduced mango in the late eighteenth century. Egypt imported grafted saplings in 1925 from India which established successfully. The mango was introduced into southern Italy in 1905 and Lisbon in the middle of the eighteen century.

The French islands of Reunion is the original home of several varieties, now cultivated in the West Indies and Florida. The mango was introduced to Somali land in 1331 AD and Reunion and Madagascar about the middle of eighteenth century. The fruit was introduced in Canary islands in the nineteenth century and the Azores in 1865 AD.

In the Mediterranean region, the species are not entirely successful. Trees are reported to have produced fruits in several localities. In Madeira and Canary Island, it was grown successfully.



HISTORY OF MANGO

The history of the introduction of the mango into West Indies is the interesting. The mango was first introduced to Barbodos in 1742. According to Candolle, ''A French vessel was carrying some young trees from Bourbon to Saint Domingo in 1782, when it was introduced in Jamaica where they were established. When the coffee plantations were abandoned at the time of the emancipation of the slaves, the mango whose stones were scattered by Negroes everywhere, which formed forest in every part of the islands, and these are now valued both for their shade and as a form of food. Mango thrives very well in Jamaica. Later, two grafted varieties (Bombai) were imported by John Peter Grant from India in 1869, 22 varieties were introduced. Grafted plants of 11 varieties of mango were introduced from Botanical Garden at Martingue. Since then mango is well established in Jamaica. Seedling mangoes according to Candolle are better fruit than the grafted varieties in Cayenne (French Guiana). The grafted varieties were introduced at the end of the eighteenth century but now they have the finest mangoes.

Famous Urdu Poet Mirza Ghalib praised mango as sealed jars of paradisal honey. It is very interesting to note that an ode to mango appearing in an anthology written and published in Calcutta between 1793 and 1797 by one J-H and dedicated to the officers of the Indian Army on the Bengal establishment under the East India Company. A stanza is quoted.

The luscious fruit admired the best
Which ripens in the rosy East,
By elegance of most ador'd
Of all the viands on the board.

Late Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, served mangoes to Mr.Leonoid Brezhnev, then President of Moscow in 1976. Late Mrs. Gandhi's favourite fruit was mango and she used to like Indian Samar Bahist variety the most. She presented a basket of Alphonso mangoes to President Tito during her visit to Yugoslavia in 1973.

Mao Tse-tung, Chairman of China was fond of mangoes. Mango is considered a 'Spiritual Atom Bomb' by the followers of Mao.


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