Mango is the main fruit of Asia
and this fruit has developed its own importance
all over the world. Being an useful and delicious
fruit, it was the part of culture and religion
since long time. Besides of its being of fine
taste and good qualities, it is called as the
king of the fruits.
Mango (Mangifera indica) is the natural fruit
of India and since long it is the choicest fruit
in India and abroad. This fruit has been in
cultivation in India sub-continent for well
over 4000 years and has been the favourite of
the kings and commoners because of its nutritive
value, taste, attractive fragrance and health
promoting qualities and now it is recognized
as one of the best fruits in the world market.
NOMENCLATURE OF MANGO
Mango word comes from Malayalam, man-ka.
In Kerla, people call mango tree as 'Ma or Mavu'.
The first mention of mango (Manga) appeared
in English in 1582 A.D. Lichefield's translation
of Castenheda's conq. E. Indies (I.XVI : 42).
Up to the kingdom
Kingdom Plantae -- Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta -- Vascular
-- Seed plants
Magnoliophyta -- Flowering plants
Magnoliopsida -- Dicotyledons
Anacardiaceae -- Sumac family
Genus Mangifera L. -- mango P
Species Mangifera indica
L. -- mango P
MANGO HAS ITS DIFFERENT NAME IN DIFFERENT
In Nepal, it called as Ango;
in Sri Lanka - Amba, ambi, Kaddum and Watamba;
in Burma - Tharet, Taw, Tharet; in Siam-Mamong;
in Vietnam Cay Xoai; in Cambodia - Soai, In
Malaysia-Manga, Mangga, Mampalam and Pauh; in
Indonesia - Ampalam, Manga, Maplane, Mapoolane
Booah Bibe, Manilja and Pager; in Philippines-Mampalam,
Mangka and Pao; in Formosa-Jap; in China - Anlokuo
and Mongkwo; in Persia - Amba and Ambeh; in
Turkey - Manguag; in Arabia - Abning; in Africa
- Manora, Mango, Mano, Mangga and Mangueira;
in French - Mangier, Manguier and Loubi; in
German-Mangga, muembe; in Brazil - Mangaiba;
in Dutch - manja in English - Mango and in India
ORIGIN OF MANGO
Historical and philological facts
bear that M. Indica has been introduced to the
archipilogic regions of India from the mainland.
Mango is known to be grown in older days as
early as 327 AD. It is said that Emperor Sikandar
when attacked India, stayed in a Mango Garden.
The other persons who praised mango were the
travellers, Hwe'Sang, Ibnahoukul (902-968 AD),
Ibnabatoota (1325-1349AD) and Leudo Visde Varthma
(1503-1508 AD) .The mango is said to have originated
in the Indo-Burma region (Decandolle, 1904;
Popenoe, 1920; Vavilov,1949-50). On the basis
of the presence of maximum number of allied
species growing in Malaysia, some workers are
lead to believe that Malaysian region is the
original home of Mango, as about 20 species
are grown there. Mango is undoubtedly under
cultivation for more than 4000 years in eastern
Indian & Burma (Decandolle, 1904).
The mango had been introduced into certain islands
of Asiatic archiplago within the memory of living
men. The name common in Philippines 'Manga'
show a foreign origin. Vavilov (1926) supported
that mango originated in Indo-Myanmar region.
Hwen 'Sang, a Chinese traveler who visited India
between 632-645AD, was the first person to take
mango to outside world. Early in fifteen century,
Spanish voyagers, Muslim missionaries and Portugese
carried mango to South East Asia and Philippines.
In the beginning of sixteenth century Portugese
introduced mango from Goa into South Africa
and from Bombay to Egypt in 1825. Mango was
introduced into western hemisphere when it was
first planted in Brazil in 1700 and thereafter,
it was introduced into West Indies around 1740
(Chandler, 1958). Hayes (1957) advocated that
mango was being cultivated at the head of the
Persian Gulf by sixteen century. It was introduced
in Philippines after 1600, in the Moluccas in
1865 and in Yemen in the later part of eighteenth
century (Burns and Prayag, 1921).
It is also reported that the mango was being
grown in England under glass house conditions
as early as 1690 and trees at Kew were in fruiting
during 1818. In Mexico, it was introduced before
1778 by the Spanish travellers from the Philippines.
It was cultivated in Barbados in 1742 and in
Jamaica in 1782. According to Pope (1929), it
was introduced in Hawaii between 1800 and 1820.
In 1809, it was carried from Mexico to Hawaii.
Mango was first planted in Florida and California
in 1861 and 1880, respectively. Later in 1889,
USDA introduced grafted Mulgoba Variety from
India into Florida.