Origin of Mango    

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NOMENCLATURE OF MANGO

Mango is the main fruit of Asia and this fruit has developed its own importance all over the world. Being an useful and delicious fruit, it was the part of culture and religion since long time. Besides of its being of fine taste and good qualities, it is called as the king of the fruits.

Mango (Mangifera indica) is the natural fruit of India and since long it is the choicest fruit in India and abroad. This fruit has been in cultivation in India sub-continent for well over 4000 years and has been the favourite of the kings and commoners because of its nutritive value, taste, attractive fragrance and health promoting qualities and now it is recognized as one of the best fruits in the world market.

NOMENCLATURE OF MANGO

Mango word comes from Malayalam, man-ka. In Kerla, people call mango tree as 'Ma or Mavu'. The first mention of mango (Manga) appeared in English in 1582 A.D. Lichefield's translation of Castenheda's conq. E. Indies (I.XVI : 42).

Up to the kingdom

Kingdom Plantae -- Plants

  Subkingdom Tracheobionta -- Vascular plants

    Superdivision Spermatophyta -- Seed plants

      Division Magnoliophyta -- Flowering plants

        Class Magnoliopsida -- Dicotyledons

          Subclass Rosidae

            Order Sapindales

               Family Anacardiaceae -- Sumac family

                  Genus Mangifera L. -- mango P

                    Species Mangifera indica L. -- mango P



MANGO HAS ITS DIFFERENT NAME IN DIFFERENT COUNTR'IES :


In Nepal, it called as Ango; in Sri Lanka - Amba, ambi, Kaddum and Watamba; in Burma - Tharet, Taw, Tharet; in Siam-Mamong; in Vietnam Cay Xoai; in Cambodia - Soai, In Malaysia-Manga, Mangga, Mampalam and Pauh; in Indonesia - Ampalam, Manga, Maplane, Mapoolane Booah Bibe, Manilja and Pager; in Philippines-Mampalam, Mangka and Pao; in Formosa-Jap; in China - Anlokuo and Mongkwo; in Persia - Amba and Ambeh; in Turkey - Manguag; in Arabia - Abning; in Africa - Manora, Mango, Mano, Mangga and Mangueira; in French - Mangier, Manguier and Loubi; in German-Mangga, muembe; in Brazil - Mangaiba; in Dutch - manja in English - Mango and in India Aam.

ORIGIN OF MANGO

Historical and philological facts bear that M. Indica has been introduced to the archipilogic regions of India from the mainland. Mango is known to be grown in older days as early as 327 AD. It is said that Emperor Sikandar when attacked India, stayed in a Mango Garden. The other persons who praised mango were the travellers, Hwe'Sang, Ibnahoukul (902-968 AD), Ibnabatoota (1325-1349AD) and Leudo Visde Varthma (1503-1508 AD) .The mango is said to have originated in the Indo-Burma region (Decandolle, 1904; Popenoe, 1920; Vavilov,1949-50). On the basis of the presence of maximum number of allied species growing in Malaysia, some workers are lead to believe that Malaysian region is the original home of Mango, as about 20 species are grown there. Mango is undoubtedly under cultivation for more than 4000 years in eastern Indian & Burma (Decandolle, 1904).

The mango had been introduced into certain islands of Asiatic archiplago within the memory of living men. The name common in Philippines 'Manga' show a foreign origin. Vavilov (1926) supported that mango originated in Indo-Myanmar region. Hwen 'Sang, a Chinese traveler who visited India between 632-645AD, was the first person to take mango to outside world. Early in fifteen century, Spanish voyagers, Muslim missionaries and Portugese carried mango to South East Asia and Philippines. In the beginning of sixteenth century Portugese introduced mango from Goa into South Africa and from Bombay to Egypt in 1825. Mango was introduced into western hemisphere when it was first planted in Brazil in 1700 and thereafter, it was introduced into West Indies around 1740 (Chandler, 1958). Hayes (1957) advocated that mango was being cultivated at the head of the Persian Gulf by sixteen century. It was introduced in Philippines after 1600, in the Moluccas in 1865 and in Yemen in the later part of eighteenth century (Burns and Prayag, 1921).
It is also reported that the mango was being grown in England under glass house conditions as early as 1690 and trees at Kew were in fruiting during 1818. In Mexico, it was introduced before 1778 by the Spanish travellers from the Philippines. It was cultivated in Barbados in 1742 and in Jamaica in 1782. According to Pope (1929), it was introduced in Hawaii between 1800 and 1820. In 1809, it was carried from Mexico to Hawaii. Mango was first planted in Florida and California in 1861 and 1880, respectively. Later in 1889, USDA introduced grafted Mulgoba Variety from India into Florida.



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